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STIDS 2014

Half-day Tutorials

Go to Tutorial 2

  Tutorial 1:   Ontology of Military Planning and
                                    Operations Assessment

Tuesday afternoon, November 18, 2014

Faculty: Barry Smith, Erik Thomsen
The background of this tutorial is a US Air Force Research Laboratory initiative to transform Air Force planning and operations assessment from a disjointed static approach based on paper documents into a unified dynamic approach based on a computational 'living plan'. Part of this initiative will rest on the development of an ontology of plans and of military operations, viewing the latter as forming a three-stage cycle of plan specification, plan execution, and post-execution review. This cycle is seen as continuously unfolding on the strategic, operational and tactical levels – hence 'living plan'. A special role is played by the issue of devising a framework for the coordination of collaborative agency across large organizations. How can we build feedback mechanisms into the planning and outcomes assessment process in such a way as to enable evolutionary improvement in the framework over time?

13:00 - 13:45 Review of existing military planning and
operations assessment regimes
(Erik Thomsen)

Topics to be addressed include: APEX; Identification of resulting problems; Gap assessment;
Ontology for Smart Information Grids for multi-level planning agencies

13:50 - 14:40 The ontology of shared agency across large organizations:
how can we create computational environments that will
take account of single- and multi-level collaborative agency?
(Barry Smith)

Review of the history of approaches to military planning and operations assessmen; Role of doctrine (C2W, Joint Planning); Role of speech act theory and document act theory; Document Control Ontology

14:40 - 15:00 Break

15:00 - 15:45 Introduction to the ontology of plans
(Barry Smith)

15:50 - 16:40 Realizing a computational framework for the living plan
(Erik Thomsen)

Topics: Situational Awareness; Plan Development; Plan Review and Selection; Plan Commitment; Plan Absorption; Plan Communication; Plan Execution; Plan Evaluation and Operations / Outcomes Assessment

16:40 - 17:00 Break

17:00 - 18:00 Exploratory session
(ET, BS and tutorial participants)

Exploratory session to allow critical review, presentation of
alternative approaches, identification of potential secondary uses

18:00             Close

Further details and background materials are provided here.

Erik Thomsen is Senior Scientist - Cognitive Systems at Charles River Analytics in Boston, MA. He has over 20 years experience creating analytical software and business applications with an emphasis on intelligent systems and socio-economic and environmental models. He is also the author of multiple publications on data integration and fusion, semantic technologies, visualization, pattern recognition, foundations of logic, language and mathematics, and of the influential textbook OLAP: Building Multidimensional Information Systems (Wiley, 2nd edition).

Barry Smith, PhD, founder of the Ontology for the Intelligence Community (now STIDS) conference series, is an internationally recognized leader in the field of ontology and semantic technology. He is Professor of Philosophy, Biomedical Informatics, Neurology, and Computer Science and Engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo and Director of the National Center for Ontological Research.

Go to Tutorial 1

  Tutorial 2:   Part A - Ontology Design Principles in Support of the Analyst
Part B - GeoSPARQL Tutorial

Tuesday, November 18, 2014
Faculty: Eric Peterson, Dave Kolas
The first part of Tutorial 2 is focused on ontology design principles. The session will cover two dozen foundational preventative solutions for many of the modeling problems encountered in serious semantic modeling efforts. While designed to support semantic integration at scale, these principles also promote analytical expressivity/sophistication and facilitate non-brittle future-proof reaction to changing requirements for enterprise ontology modeling, and the semantic web as well.
Thoughtful modeling principles can guide the shape of key design patterns and promote agreement on such patterns. The modeling principles can enhance virtually all subject domains while focusing on key areas such as space, time, and events.
This expressive modeling approach supports present, near-term, and mid-term IC analysis and analyst tools. These principles were developed in the trenches on projects with deadlines, accountability to customers, and strict operational requirements. They were intensively vetted by world-class ontologists, classic data scientists, and IC analysts. Participants with all levels of ontology modeling experience are encouraged to attend.

The second part of Tutorial 2 is focused on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) GeoSPARQL standard.
GeoSPARQL provides a common ontology for representing and querying geospatial data. This tutorial will provide an introduction to using GeoSPARQL in ontologies and applications. It will assume some familiarity with RDF, OWL, and SPARQL, but provide an introduction to geospatial data.
The tutorial will cover the following topics:
  1. Introduction to geospatial data
  2. Description of the GeoSPARQL Standard
  3. Connecting GeoSPARQL to an ontology
  4. Creating GeoSPARQL data
  5. Querying GeoSPARQL data
13:00 - 13:45 Motivation/Introduction and Design Principles
(Eric Peterson)

  • Purpose
  • Be Requirements Driven
  • Be Future-resistant
  • Model Events
  • Bump up the Normalization Level
  • Make Documentation Matter
  • Maximize External Reuse
  • Maximize Internal Reuse
  • Get Time Right
  • Get Space Right
  • Model Consistently

13:45 - 14:30 Design Principles, Questions, and Joint Modeling
(Eric Peterson)

  • Reified Literals
  • Model What the Data Says
  • Model Things Naturally
  • Do Not Proliferate Properties
  • Avoid Needlessly Duplicative Class
    and Property Hierarchies
  • Do Not Compete with the RDFS Type System
  • When to Add a Subclass
  • Do Not Impose Unnatural Limitations on
    the Depth of an Ontology
  • Do Not Or Together Domain and Range Types
  • Document Type Modeling

14:30 - 14:45 Break

14:45 - 15:30 Introduction to geospatial data
Description of the GeoSPARQL Standard
(Dave Kolas)

In this section we will discuss different types of geospatial data and common practices for representing them. We will begin to go into detail in describing the two main parts of the GeoSPARQL standard: the GeoSPARQL ontology for spatial data and the query relations for topological relationships. We will briefly touch on the query rewriting rules for feature-to-feature relationships.

15:30 - 16:15 Connecting GeoSPARQL to an ontology
(Dave Kolas)

In this section we will discuss the steps that must be taken to connect a domain ontology to GeoSPARQL. We will discuss the main linkage and extension points that GeoSPARQL provides. We will also begin a running example of a domain ontology using GeoSPARQL.

16:15 - 16:30 Break

16:30 - 17:15 Creating GeoSPARQL data
Querying GeoSPARQL data
(Dave Kolas)

In this section we will discuss a number of ways to create GeoSPARQL data both from scratch and from existing geospatial data sources. We will then begin to formulate various GeoSPARQL queries on this data, and show their execution. At this point we can discuss any particular use cases the group has in mind and walk through those examples as well.

17:15             Close

Eric Peterson is a Principal Ontolgist at Noblis/National Security Partners where he presently provides ontology-based spatial and temporal reasoning support for the METEOR natural language understanding project. He has accumulated nearly three decades of service to the Intel and DoD communities utilizing semantic technology AI, knowledge representation/engineering, and NLP. He was Chief Modeler on the DataSphere semantic data integration project and one of two chief semantic integration modelers on Synapse. He was Chief Technologist for a DoD data integration effort for Harris Corporation. His early formal semantic influences included working for Leo Obrst at MITRE and at Vertical Net doing ontology-based agent communication and semantic integration of product catalogs.

Dave Kolas is a scientist at Raytheon BBN Technologies, in Columbia, MD. He was the co-Chair of the GeoSPARQL Standards Working Group within the Open Geospatial Consortium, and has co-Chaired the Terra Cognita workshop on geospatial semantics at the International Semantic Web Conference four times. He has now been working on U.S. Government funded research for several years, with a concentration on geospatial Semantic Web query languages, query processing, data integration, and natural language information extraction. He is also an active member of the Spatial Ontology Community of Practice (SOCoP).

Last updated: 08/18/2015